Pytania do (Quirk et al.) A Comprehensive Grammar ... (1985)

Temat przeniesiony do archwium
Witam,

Amatorsko czytam te ksiege i oczywiscie napotykam na problemy, z ktorymi sobie nie radze. Stad, ma goraca prosba o Wasza pomoc.


3.21 Verbs in auxiliary function
'[...] The auxiliaries make different contributions to the verb phrase. Of the three primary verbs, DO is only a semantically empty syntactic component in sentence processes such as negation and interrogation, whereas BE contributes to aspect and voice, and HAVE contributes to aspect. The modal auxiliaries are so called because of their contribution of meanings in the area known as MODALITY (including such concepts as volition, probability, and obligation); but such verbs have a broader semantic role than this label suggests.' (str. 120).

Czego tutaj nie rozumiem to czym sa: 'aspect' i 'voice'? W dalszej czesci rozdzialu opisane sa takie kwestie jak: finity i infinity oraz podzial na stative and dynamic verbs. Nie moge jednak nic wiecej znalezc.

Wikpedia:
In grammar, the voice (also called diathesis) of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.).

Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event or state, denoted by a verb, relates to the flow of time.

W jaki sposob moge zastosowac definicje tych cech w odniesieniu do czasow? Czy rozumuje poprawnie probujac zastosowac je w ten sposob:

'I am eating ...'
am = auxiliary BE. Mamy tutaj 'aspect' (ktory sugeruje terazniejszosc) i brak 'voice'?

'I have been playing ...'
Jak moge wytlumaczyc BE i HAVE uzywajac koncepcji "aspect' i 'voice"?

Bardzo prosze napisac czy zle podchodze do tego zagadnienia, zbytnio je analizuje czy moze jest w tym jakis sens? :)

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